a unified theory of time travel

Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity suggests that time travel to the past is possible via rotating wormholes and/or black holes. The actual technical practicality of actually carrying out such journeys need not concern us since this essay is in the realm of the thought experiment. Now Stephen Hawking says time travel to the past is not possible because he proposes that there is such a thing as a yet undiscovered Chronology Protection Conjecture that prevents this and thus makes the world safe for historians. I’ve come up with a unified theory of time travel into the past that incorporates Einstein’s general theory of relativity; Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture, along with other assorted bits like parallel universes that are thrown into the mix.

Time travel is a staple in sci-fi stories, novels, films and TV series. And, time travel is possible – in theory. We all know about journeying to the future which we do at the rate of one second per second whether we like it or not. Apart from that, if one travels at close to light speeds relative to your place of origin then you can travel to the distant future (with respect to that place of origin) without aging an equivalent number of years (the twin paradox). Travel to the past is apparently allowed too, via the weird physics inherent in rotating worm holes and maybe Black Holes which is where Einstein’s general theory of relativity comes into play. The problem there is that relativity theory predicts worm holes, if they exist at all, will exist for nanoseconds and be very tiny to boot, and thus not very useful in the foreseeable future for the purposes of time travel. Because we don’t know exactly what the inside of a Black Hole is, and where it leads, if anywhere, current thinking suggests that jumping into Black Holes are a more useful means for committing suicide than for traveling to the past, but the jury is still out on that one.

Anyway, the fun bit about time travel is the various paradoxes that arise, the most famous one being the grandfather paradox. That is, what if you travel back in time and kill your grandfather before he sired your father (or mother). If you did that it means that you could never have been born, but if you were never born you couldn’t go back in time to kill your ancestor. This is the sort of stuff sci-fi authors (and philosophers) love – ditto physicists! My favorite time travel paradox however is the one where you get something for nothing. Say you have this edition of “Hamlet”, and you want Shakespeare to autograph it. So back you go in time to Shakespeare’s era. You knock on his door, but the housekeeper says he’s out for the day but if you leave the book he’ll autograph it and you can come by and collect it next morning. When Shakespeare comes home, he sees the book, reads it, and is so impressed he spends the night making a copy. You come back the next morning, collect your now autographed edition of “Hamlet”, and return to the present day with your now very valuable book. The question now becomes, where did the original “Hamlet” come from? You didn’t write it; but Shakespeare didn’t either as he plagiarized your copy which he then passed it off as his own work.

Another favorite is you meeting yourself. Say you’re 50 and not all that well off. You get the brilliant idea to travel back in time and convince your younger self to invest in some stocks you know will pay off big time later on down the track. And so it comes to pass that your younger self so invests, and becomes filthy rich, only, in leading such a high life, dies of a heart attack at the age of 45! Or you always regretted not proposing to the love of your life when you were young, and thus go back and convince your younger self to muster up the courage and do so. He does, but as they fly off on their honeymoon, the plane crashes with no survivors. Sometimes you don’t know when you’re well off.

Or if you can travel back in time, then of course others can to. Naturally there’s going to be lots of people interested in particular events, maybe even at the time, seemingly trivial events (yet which turn out in the long run to have had major impact(s)). And so you might have any number of people going back to particular historical focal points, each with their own particular agenda (most of which will be mutually exclusive), and ultimately causing havoc. I mean if person one goes back and influences an event producing a new outcome, then person two might go back and has a go at that result and things get altered again, which will then prompt person three to go back and influence things more to his liking, etc. In other words, history would never be fixed, rather always be fluid. The world is not safe for historians. Since we believe that history (or the past) is fixed, then that what’s written on your history book page today will not alter overnight. Thus, you have probably concluded that time travel cannot happen, will not happen, and has not happened, however much you yourself might wish to go back in time yourself and change something. (Don’t we all really wish some past something, personal and trivial, or perhaps something of major significance could be changed and you’d be that instrument of change?)

Its paradoxes and situations such as the above that prompted Stephen Hawking to postulate that there is as yet an undiscovered law or principle of physics which prohibits time travel to the past – he calls it his ‘Chronology Projection Conjecture’. Since we have never seen, according to Hawking, to the best of our knowledge at least, any time travelers – tourists or historians – from our future, he’s probably right.

So, putting it all together, here’s my theory of time travel: my unified theory of time travel, at least to the past.

Relativity theory has passed every experimental test thrown at it, so the theory isn’t in much doubt and one can have a high degree of confidence in what it predicts, even if that prediction is currently beyond any experimental test. Relativity theory allows for time travel into the past, but, IMHO, only to parallel universes (otherwise known as alternative or mirror or shadow universes) where no paradoxes can happen.

Why only parallel universes? The ways and means by which you can use relativity theory to time travel backwards involves rotating Black Holes or wormholes. There are serious reasons behind the speculation that what’s on the other side of a Black Hole and/or wormhole is another universe. So, therefore it’s relativity’s time travel allowance, but probably to another universe. The Black Hole or wormhole ‘exit’ isn’t within our Universe.

Whatever you do in that parallel universe is predetermined. It’s fate. It’s destiny – all because causality rules. Therefore, there are no unexpected ripple effects other than what was destined to happen. You were meant to be there and do what you do. Therefore, there will be no paradoxes arising.

Astrophysicist Stephen Hawking has proposed his Chronology Protection Conjecture that prohibits time travel to the past within your own universe because of the possible paradoxes that could arise. Why can’t you go back in time in your own universe? That would mean that at a specific time and place you both were not (originally) and were (as a result of going back) present. That’s a paradox. And if you were to travel back in time to a set of time and space coordinates you were actually originally at, then there would be two copies of you occupying the same space at the same time – also a paradox.

But take the grandfather paradox. If you go back in time and kill your grandfather, but your grandfather in a parallel universe, then you don’t prevent your existence, just the eventual existence of yourself, your other self, in that parallel universe. In the case of Shakespeare and “Hamlet”, you gave your copy to a parallel universe Shakespeare. In your original (our) Universe, Shakespeare is still the legitimate author.

Once you time travel from your universe A, to parallel universe B, you can’t return again to universe A because of Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture – paradoxes could arise. However, you could go from parallel universe B to parallel universe C, but, hence never return to either universe A or B – Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture again.

Perhaps some people you’ve seen or known or heard about might be time travelers from a parallel universe’s future. If they then time travel to another parallel universe, then that might account for some missing persons’ cases!

In short, we can time travel to other parallel universes but not to our own; entities from other parallel universes can visit our Universe. No paradoxes need arise. Both Einstein (relativity) and Hawking (Chronology Protection Conjecture) are satisfied and happy campers.

Is that right? No, it’s wrong!

There’s still one very nasty loose end here. What’s to prevent those from a parallel universe meddling and altering our time stream? It’s not enough for them to have a Prime Directive against that – we all know Prime Directives are meant to be broken! So, it looks like Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture must apply to those visitors from parallel universes to our Universe as well. I mean what difference does it make to your existence whether you travel back in time within your own universe and kill your mother before you were conceived, or some serial killer escaping from a parallel universe to our Universe who kills your mother before you were conceived – even though in the latter case there’s no paradox, you still wouldn’t have been conceived of here in anyone’s philosophy!

OK, so relativity allows time travel back in time, but only to parallel universes. The Hawking Chronology Protection Conjecture not only prevents time travel paradoxes in general, but it also prevents parallel universe time travelers meddling and altering our timeline; ditto we humans time traveling to someone else’s parallel universe. But how would the Hawking Chronology Protection Conjecture actually accomplish this? My best guess is that parallel universes aren’t in phase – they aren’t polarized or synchronized in-phase like a laser beam, or the light that passes through your polarized sunglasses – otherwise we’d have some rather hard evidence of them; certainly way more than we do now.

So, if we go to parallel universe B or those from parallel universe B visits us, we’ll, or they’d be respectively out of phase with respect to the universe they are now in. Translated, they, or we, could look, but not touch for all practical purposes. I say for all practical purposes as now and again what’s out of phase (high probability – the usual state of affairs) will sync into phase (that’s rare). But the in-phase times are so few and far between, and last for such a brief duration that it’s unlikely to result in any inadvertent or deliberate timeline alterations. That’s my rendering of the Hawking Chronology Protection Conjecture – he could well have other ways and means in mind.

So another way of putting this is that time travelers would be spectral or ghostlike in their host universe, and maybe that’s where our traditions of ghosts and other things that go bump in the night come from! This is much like the parallel universe ghost or shadow photons that are conjectured to explain some highly mysterious aspects or phenomena contained within the famous quantum double slit* experiment. Now an obvious question is how do all the parallel universe ghost photons get into our physics labs where double slit experiments are carried out? I mean there are no local macro Black Hole or wormhole exits present – are there? Yes in fact there are! Not a macro wormhole, but a micro wormhole – actually wormholes. Theoretically, micro wormholes should exist all around you. It’s just that they are at quantum levels – incredible tiny; way subatomic in size. And they exist for just nanoseconds before collapsing. They are just part of the quantum foam** reality at super microscopic levels, a reality at the level where all things exhibit the quantum jitters or quantum fluctuations. Thus, every second of every day, everywhere, there are little quantum gateways – quantum sized wormholes connections between universes which quantum sized particles – like photons – can traverse! From the standpoint of the double slit experiment, it doesn’t matter whether the parallel universe’s ghost photons came from the past, future or present – just as long as they are, indeed, present!

Now you may think it would be easy to detect these ghostly photons. Just put a photon detector in a totally dark and sealed room. Well, not quite so easy. Some photons can pass through ‘solid’ matter. X-Ray photons anyone? Radio wave photons pass through the walls of your home. If you look at a bright light, you’ll still see light even if you close your eyes. So, your photon detector in your dark and sealed room could easily detect our local variety.

The ghostly bits aside, parallel universe time travelers (or even ordinary time travelers from within our Universe assuming Hawking is wrong)) might explain the sometimes uncanny, often incredible look-a-likes that we all seem to have. A long shot to be sure, but something interesting to ponder.

There’s still one more problem on the horizon. Just because a macro Black Hole or wormhole plunks you into a parallel universe (and of course you’ve got to be able to survive the trip itself which might be problematical), doesn’t mean you’re going to be with spitting distance of your ultimate destination(s) – say a parallel Earth(s). So, time travelers might also need more conventional transport – like Flying Saucers (okay, forget the saucers – like spaceships with fins and rocket motors). But then what’s really there to distinguish a visiting time traveler from a parallel universe from say a run-of-the-mill extraterrestrial from within our own Universe? Maybe you could just put out the welcome mat for both options!

One final thought. Could there be a Clayton’s time travel? – Time travel without traveling in time? At the risk of making Einstein turn over in his grave; I’m going to propose a universal NOW across all universes. Now I know that NOW, when it comes to observers, is a relative thing. An observer in Martian orbit sees Mars’ NOW somewhat before you on Planet Earth sees the same Mars’ NOW because the speed of light is finite. And relative motions and velocities complicate what is NOW. But, I propose (a thought experiment remember) to instantaneously freeze-frame the entire collection of universes’ NOW. Everyone and everything everywhere comes to an instant standstill. Right! We now have a universal NOW that we can study at our leisure (the freeze doesn’t apply to you and me – we’re outside the space-time continuum).

Let’s focus on that subset of all parallel universes – all parallel Earths and time travel between them. Now there’s no reason to assume that all parallel Earths are identical in all aspects. Indeed, some parallel universes may not even contain a parallel Earth! There maybe some parallel Earths identical or so close to identical to our Planet Earth as makes no odds – abodes you’d feel right at home in. Other Earths would differ in various ways, some minor, some major. Still others might be really weird and alien, as in having evolved a dinosaur society, civilization and technology. There was no parallel asteroid impact 65 million years ago; thus no human beings around the traps 65 millions later.

Your subset of parallel Earths would show near infinite diversity in infinite combinations. I say ‘near’ because you can only stretch the term ‘Earth’ or ‘Earth-like’ so far and no farther, before it’s not Earth or Earth-like. A 100% oceanic world is not Earth. If a parallel ‘Earth’ has Venus-like temperatures, it is not Earth-like. If it has a density approaching that of a neutron star, it is not Earth-like. If it has no life on it, even though in all other respects it is a near carbon copy of our Earth, it is not Earth-like.

Now it’s back to the NOW subset of parallel Earths and Earth-like abodes. There’s no reason to assume that evolutionary development; that evolutionary development rates would proceed in each and every case in an identical fashion. Some parallel Earths would still be in the dinosaur era (if they had dinosaurs of course). In some parallel Earths, cavemen and saber tooth tigers rule. In others, it’s Biblical times, or Medieval times or the era when Britannia ruled the waves. Others in our absolute NOW, on yet other parallel Earths, or parallel earthlings, might have just invented the wireless or landed on their Moon (if they have one). On some parallel Earths it may already be what to us will be the 23rd or 24th Century with interstellar warp drive capabilities at hand – and even way beyond that. So, you could seemingly travel to the past and future while actually remaining in our NOW. You’ve traveled in time without really traveling in time, or, time travel without the paradoxes – but maybe that spoils all the intellectual fun of contemplating time travel in the first place!

*The problem solved here is how can you get a classic wave interference pattern behind two slits you fire photons through; even when you fire the photons at say a rate of one per hour? Who you gonna call – ghost photons of course to the rescue.

**Quantum foam – the world may look pretty smooth from a distance, but as you keep magnifying the finer details, the micro world gets ever so slightly bumpier. Close in some more and things get rougher still, until at quantum level everything is a seething cauldron of tumultuous activity. It’s like the sea that looks perfectly smooth and tranquil from Earth orbit, but at rowboat level, you’re terrified as that 50 foot wave comes crashing down on you.

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Day Trips Worth Taking To Some Small Towns Around San Francisco

There are tons of things to do, as it is when you’re in San Francisco. The busiest waterfront in the region, Fisherman’s Wharf, a notorious and former-home to Al Capone, Alcatraz Island, the definitive and iconic landmark that is Golden Gate and the vibrant neighborhood of Union Square and Chinatown – days can be spent either languidly sunbathing along one of its serene beaches or trekking through the rough terrains of the Santa Cruz mountains. San Francisco is also blessed with spectacular scenery, a vast number of vineyards and wineries, and boast of small towns and big cities within a short charter bus ride away.

Located on the fringes of San Francisco’s bustling city center are mysterious caverns, challenging state parks, deep canyons, rocky climb sites, redwood groves, campsites, ranches, beaches and the adventure-filled wild. After all, if you’ve been to Golden Gate, Alcatraz Island, the world’s classiest aquariums, watched the finest shows at Palace of Fine Arts Theater, or have hiked your way up for the breathtaking views at Twin Peaks, you might be game for something different.

1. Tiburon and Angel Island
Distance: 45 minutes drive away from San Francisco via I-580 E and I-80 W

Tiburon Peninsula and Angel Island, both collectively and individually, has been making a splash in the San Francisco travel scene. With fewer tourists compared to other towns and cities, you can easily enjoy a walking tour while exploring quaint shops and dropping by charming bakeries or rent a bike for an on-the-road tour of the town and island. You can personalize your own tours to take you around beaches, ferry terminals and magnificent mansions, visit the Angel Island Immigration Station which houses countless documents left behind by many immigrants who were traveling across the vast Pacific Ocean to reach San Francisco through Angel Island (it used to serve as a detention center).

When you feel like knocking back a few glasses of beer or cups of coffee, take your pick from the countless picnic areas scattered throughout the island. Just look around and you’ll see that the streets are lined with quaint diners, fast-food eateries, and world-class restaurants for date nights and corporate dinners alike. The shoreline along Tiburon, in the meantime, is postcard-ready; ready to show off the sunset of San Francisco across the bay. Thanks to the fact that Tiburon is now considered one of the fastest-growing tourist and commuter towns in San Francisco, it enjoys fast ferry services and has a very high concentration of chic retail outlets, shops, cafes, and bars.

Places to visit in Tiburon – Angel Island

Angel Island – Tiburon Ferry 21 Main St, Tiburon, CA 94920-2533 (415) 435-2131
Sausalito Visitors Center 780 Bridgeway, Foot of El Portal Street at the Ferry Pier, Sausalito, CA 94965-2159 (415) 331-1093
Blackie’s Pasture Tiburon Peninsula Foundation, Tiburon, CA 94920 A monument dedicated to a horse that used to roam the expanse of the park for its entire life
San Francisco Bay Model 2100 Bridgeway, Sausalito, CA 94965-1753 (415) 332-3870
Tennessee Valley Trailhead 591 Tennessee Valley Rd, Mill Valley, CA 94941-3627 (415) 331-1540
Vista Point Us-101, Golden Gate Bridge, Sausalito, CA 94965 (415) 921-5858
Bay Area Discovery Museum 557 McReynolds Rd, Sausalito, CA 94965-2614 (415) 339-3900
2. Skyline Boulevard, Woodside
Location: 35 minutes drive from San Francisco via I-280 N
Escape into the woodlands and cool mountainsides of Woodside and you’ll be enjoying spectacular, panoramic ocean views of the Pacific ocean and its bay area. Pop by quaint restaurants like Alice’s Restaurant for BBQ and burger, sample gluten-free beer, and then head over to Thomas Fogarty Winery to sample delicious signature wines out on the romantic wood-paneled gazebo. If you’re looking for some self-reflection or inner calm, bring the charter bus to Jikoji Zen Center. The center was founded by Steve Job’s mentor, Kobun Chino Otogawa. It’s entirely up to you whether you want to get comfortable meditating in its tranquil zendos or go for a walk around its laid-back grounds to get your mental ducks in a row.

Woodside is an intentionally small, upscale neighborhood, boasting of a small but distinct number of stores, restaurants, and pubs. While its Michelin-star pub-restaurant is a good reason to visit Woodside, many cyclists are also magnetically drawn to the city. The Tour of California bicycle race previously made its rounds along CA-84 and Skyline Boulevard. If you have a love for the quiet side of California, Woodside is the place for it.

Places to Visit in Woodside, Skyline Boulevard

Purisima Creek Redwoods Open Space Preserve Half Moon Bay, CA 94019, USA (650) 691-1200
Midpeninsula Regional Open Space For horseback riding, cycling, mountain biking
Alice’s Restaurant 17288 Skyline Boulevard, Woodside, CA 94062 (650) 851-0303
Thomas Fogarty’s Winery 19501 Skyline Boulevard, Woodside, CA (650) 851 6777
Jikoji Zen Center 12100 Skyline Blvd, Los Gatos, CA 95033 (408) 741-9562
Filoli 86 Canada Road, Woodside, CA 94062-4144 (650) 364-8300
The Stanford Shopping Center 680 Stanford Shopping Ctr, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1400 (650) 617-8200
Rodin Sculpture Garden Stanford University, Stanford, CA (650) 723-4177
3. Los Gatos
Location: 50 minutes drive from San Francisco via CA-85 and US-101 N
The right word to prescribe to a place like Los Gatos is ‘affluent’ but many would also say that it is a charming, eclectic town located at the foot of the Santa Cruz mountains where the well-heeled groups and individuals of Californian society congregate to have their brunches and teas. What with the number of Michelin-starred restaurants, quaint diners, the spattering of popular bistros and old-school candy shops lining the streets, walking the streets of Los Gastos would feel a lot like stepping in and out of a time machine. It brims with nostalgia without caving into the rapid modernization of California.

With Los Gatos being ranked as one of the wealthiest cities in the United States, it is also the chosen HQ site for renowned companies, more notably, Netflix. And unsurprisingly so. During the city’s expansion and development, it also garnered a reputation as an arts colony. It regularly brought in musicians, painters, actors, writers and producers which includes Joan Fontaine, Olivia de Havilland, and Yehudi Menuhin. It slowly developed over time as a laid-back suburban community of the bustling San Jose. There’s a lot of green space to enjoy, an emulated Ponte des Artes bridge of Paris along Main Street Bridge, mountain bike trails, scenic mountainous terrains, space preserves and a significant mining museum that documented the inflow of immigrants during the Gold Rush and the city’s mining era to visit when in town.

Places to Visit in Los Gatos, CA

El Sereno Open Space Preserve Los Gatos, CA 95030, USA (650) 691-1200
Sierra Azul Open Space Preserve 16800-17162 Alma Bridge Rd, Los Gatos, CA 94022 (650) 691-1200
New Almaden Quicksilver Mining Museum 21350 Almaden Rd, San Jose, CA 95120 (408) 323-1107
English Camp Loop Panoramic views of surrounding townships, hiking, mountain biking and horseback riding along rivers flanked by wildflowers when in bloom
Vasona Park 333 Blossom Hill Rd, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (408) 356-2729
Mount Umunhum A mountain peak in California, sometimes referred to as Mount Um, ‘The Cube’ or ‘The Box’ by locals. The new mountain biking and hiking trails, as a part of the Bay Area Ridge Trail, were newly opened in 2017, comes with pavement, restrooms and interpretive displays.
New Museum Los Gatos 106 E Main St, Los Gatos, CA 95030 (408) 354-2646
Billy Jones Wildcat Railroad 233 Blossom Hill Road, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (408) 395-7433
4. Point Reyes
Location: 1 hour 45 minutes from San Francisco via US-101 S
Just know that when you need to get away from traffic, the buzz of city life and the constant whirl of social hum, there’s 71,000 acres of nature preserve along the Pacific Coast, dramatic drops and habitats for local wildlife to see and experience a short distance from San Francisco in Point Reyes. Apart from its lofty lighthouses, the over-excited colony of elephant seals, cheerful school of migrating Pacific Gray Whales and old-growth Douglas fir forest, it boasts of vista points where you can catch the best sunrise and sunset as well as beaches like Heart’s Desire Beach in Tomales Bay where sunbathing is the staple.

You can also take on the Point Reyes Safaris and West Marin Food and Farm Tours to see the finer things in life, watch as elk, coyotes, and seabirds make their way around the mildly challenging terrain in Tule Elk Preserve, and enjoy delicious local food and drinks at Heidrun Meadery and award-winning artisanal cheeses from Cowgirl Creamery which operates out of a restored hay barn. Visitors can also enjoy an unconventional 2-hour horseback riding trail ride on lovely, well-trained horses with Point Reyes Arabian Adventures, or soak in the sights while sunning on the private boat with Tomales Bay Sailing which kicks off at Point Reyes Station. Offering a nice mix of awesome adventures and slow-paced activities that allows you to let loose a little, Point Reyes is the perfect destination for a day trip or a quick weekend escapade.

Places to Visit in Point Reyes, CA

Tomales Bay Sailing Point Reyes Station, CA 94956-1027 (415) 787-4886
Point Reyes Arabian Adventures 11925 Hwy 1, Point Reyes Station, CA 94956 (707) 477-7181
Bear Valley Visitor Center 1 Bear Valley Visitor Center Access Road, Point Reyes National Seashore, CA 94956 (415) 464-5100
Chimney Rock – Point Reyes National Seashore
Cowgirl Creamery 80 4th St, Point Reyes Station, CA 94956 (415) 663-9335
Point Reyes Books 11315 CA-1, Point Reyes Station, CA 94956 (415) 663-1542
Earthquake Trail Bear Valley Rd, Point Reyes National Seashore, CA 94956
Heart’s Desire Beach Point Reyes Station, CA
Marconi State Historic Park 18500 Ca-1, Point Reyes Station, CA 94940 (415) 663-9020
Toby’s Feed Barn 11250 Ca-1, Point Reyes Station, CA 94956 (415) 663-1223
While the encapsulating coastline and access to the boundlessness of the Pacific Ocean are reasons enough to bring you to the many ‘wild escapades’ around San Francisco, they provide you with enough mental room for reflections, wide open space for explorations, and activities that will transport you into a whole new world. Watching the seals, trekking the trails, meditating and wine tasting events are all wonderful activities to help you refocus and rebalance from the business of city life.
So, is San Francisco the Right Place for your Family Day-Trip?
You can personalize your own tours to take you around beaches, ferry terminals and magnificent mansions, enjoy ancapsulating views of the Pacific Ocean and bay area, stop by famous restaurants and cafes for delicious local delicacies. There’s something for everyone ranging from wineries to award-winning cheesemakers.

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